2011;2(1):3-8. doi:10.4103/2231-4040.79796, Dhifi W, Bellili S, Jazi S, Bahloul N, Mnif W. Essential oils' chemical characterization and investigation of some biological activities: a critical review. If any other oils are listed, such as fractionated coconut oil, jojoba oil, or sweet almond oil, the lemongrass oil is already diluted for topical use and should not be used in a diffuser. The Hy Cuong leaf essential oil (HCL) showed the strongest effect on H1299 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.45 ± 0.21 μg/mL. Consequently, both C. citratus oils showed cytotoxic effects. Component relative contents were calculated based on the total ion current without standardization. Pharmacologyonline 2006;2:290-298. Cymbopogon citratus is a plant commonly used as a spice by the people in Indonesia. Annexin-V and PI staining for apoptosis detection was performed using an FITC Annexin-V/Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit according to the manufacturer’s instructions (Invitrogen, USA). The essential oil from C. citratus is known as lemongrass oil with reported antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. These results show that the essential oil of C. citratus has antifungal activities against fungi that are the producers of poisonous mycotoxins found in foods. The Kim Duc culm (KDC) essential oil exerted the strongest cytotoxic effects against H1650 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.86 ± 0.29 μg/mL. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes. 2012;4(1):28-32. doi:10.4103/0975-1483.93578, Sinha S, Jothiramajayam M, Ghosh M, Mukherjee A. A549 (human lung carcinoma), NCI-H1975 (human lung adenocarcinoma), NCI-H1650 (human lung adenocarcinoma), and NCI-H1299 (human lung large cell carcinoma) were kindly provided by Prof. Jeong-Hyung Lee, Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Korea. 2020, Article ID 5924856, 8 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5924856, 1Advanced Center for Bio-Organic Chemistry, Institute of Marine Biochemistry (IMBC), Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2Viettri University of Industry, Tien Kien, Lam Thao, Phu Tho, Vietnam, 3University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam, 4Center for Research and Technology Transfer, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Caugiay, Hanoi, Vietnam. Lemongrass, C. citratus essential oil is obtained from the aerial parts of the plant. The myrcene content was higher in leaf oil than in culm oil. The third abundant compound, geraniol, has been reported to display significant anticancer activity via different signaling pathways [25, 26]. Then, fixed cells were incubated with 1 mg/mL propidium iodide (PI) (Invitrogen, USA) in PBS at room temperature for 30 min. After 48 h, the cells were harvested and lysed with ice-cold lysis buffer containing 150 mM NaCl, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 1 mM EDTA, 1% NP-40, 5 mM sodium orthovanadate, and protease inhibitor cocktail (BD Biosciences, USA) to extract the total protein. Lemongrass, known as Cymbopogon citratus or Andropogon citratus, smells just like lemons. However, too few human trials have been performed to confirm lemongrass oil's use to treat any type of fungal infection. Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life. Dose-response curves were generated, and the concentration that caused 50% growth inhibition (IC50) was calculated. The plant has been widely recognized for its Aromatherapy. The membrane was blocked with 5% nonfat skim milk at room temperature for 1 h, followed by washing with PBS containing 0.1% Tween-20. Can Cinnamon Essential Oil Enhance Your Health? The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Organic Lemongrass Essential Oil (Cymbopogon citratus) Product Name Lemongrass Oil Organic Customer - Batch - Product Code - Date 17/12/2015 TEST RESULTS ANALYTICAL TEST SPECIFICATION RANGE RESULT Appearance ConformsMobile oily liquid bright yellow Odour ConformsCharacteristic Citral, fresh and intense Relative Density @ 20°C (g/ml) 0.869 – 0.896 0.889 Optical Rotation @ 20°C … sp. An HP-5MS fused silica capillary column (60 m × 0.25 mm id. Skin Cafe 100% Natural Essential Oil – Lemongrass 10ml. However, the quality can vary between different brands, and oils are not regulated by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.. An ethanol extract of lemongrass exhibited significant anticancer properties in lymphoma and leukemia models and effectively induced apoptosis in a recent study [19]. Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents present therein e.g. The results showed that citral is the major component accounting for 61.20%–76.46% of the essential oils. The viability of cells was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. 2014;68:71-7. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2014.02.036. Aromatherapy: do essential oils really work?. Copyright © 2020 Duong Thu Trang et al. The findings from the present study suggest that the essential oils of lemongrass have potential in cancer prevention. EWG Skin Deep® | What is CYMBOPOGON CITRATUS (LEMONGRASS) LEAF OIL EWG’s Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effect of cymbopogon citratus essential oil. In addition, the cytotoxic effects on different subtypes of NSCLC cell lines and the anticancer mechanism of lemongrass essential oils were investigated preliminarily. Does lemongrass essential oil lighten skin? Cymbopogon citratus is a plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. The lemongrasses (C. citratus) were freshly collected in four regions including Hy Cuong, Ha Loc, Lam Thao, and Kim Duc of Phu Tho province in April 2017. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. A proapoptosis effect of the polysaccharide fraction of C. citratus has also been demonstrated [20]. View abstract. The essential oils from the culms and leaves of C. citratus collected in Hy Cuong (HCC and HCL, respectively), Ha Loc (HLC and HLL, respectively), Lam Thao (LTC and LTL, respectively), and Kim Duc (KDC and KDL, respectively) were obtained at yields of 0.53%–0.71% (Table 1). BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon citratus and Allium cepa essential oils (EOs) are rich in terpenes and sulfur compounds respectively, both with antibacterial activity and different cell targets, supporting the idea that their combination can increase their efficacy. 2016;3(4). 2015;10:893-902. doi:10.2147/IJN.S74771, Carmo E, Pereira Fde O, Cavalcante N, Gayoso C, Lima Ede O. Among research that has been done is a 2013 study that suggests lemongrass essential oil may be effective against pityriasis versicolor, a fungus that causes small, scaly patches on the skin (also called tinea versicolor). Duong Thu Trang and Hoang Thi Kim Van contributed equally to this work. The cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 solution (2′-[4-ethoxyphenyl]-5-[4-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2,5′-bi-1H-benzimidazole trihydrochloride trihydrate) at a concentration of 5 μg/mL at 37°C for 30 min in the dark. U.S. Food And Drug Administration. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was recently shown to play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. Updated December 5, 2017. After 48 h incubation, 0.5 mg/mL MTT was added to each well and incubated for another 4 h. After removing the supernatant, formazan crystals were dissolved in isopropanol and the OD values were measured at 570 nm using a microplate reader. Recently, nearly four dozen different histopathological variants of lung carcinoma have been recognized. Some individuals may experience irritation when applying lemongrass oil to the skin. Identification of components was achieved based on their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns with those stored on the MS library (NIST 08, Wiley 09). Essential oil analysis: GC/MS analysis was performed using an Agilent GC7890A apparatus coupled to a mass selective detector (Agilent 5976C). Lemongrass essential oil should not be taken internally without the supervision of a health professional. According to a 2011 study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, eugenol—a compound in lemongrass essential oil—impacts both the neurotransmitter serotonin and blood-platelet action, two factors that contribute to headaches.. The stained cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope (CKX53, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) for determining any nuclear structural changes and apoptotic bodies. Biochim Open. An Bras Dermatol. Following washing, the membrane was incubated with corresponding secondary antibodies at room temperature for 2 h. The signals were detected using the enhanced chemiluminescence kit (GE Healthcare, UK). Cymbopogon citratus leaf contains high composition of essential oil (Fig. The western blot analysis indicated that HLL induced the apoptotic effect by altering the regulating proteins of the apoptosis process such as caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. doi:10.3390/medicines3040025, Han X, Parker T. Lemongrass () essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. Lana Butner, ND, LAc, is a board-certified naturopathic doctor and licensed acupuncturist in New York City. A skin patch test should be done before using this or any essential oil. Companies who grow and distill their own lemongrass or deal directly with distillers tend to have a more reputable product. After fixed gently in ice-cold 70% EtOH and incubated for 2 h at −4°C, cells were washed with ice-cold PBS twice. HLL exhibited the most potent effects on the A549 and H1975 cells, with IC50 values of 1.73 and 4.01 μg/mL, respectively. However, the contents of the eight hydrodistilled oils varied greatly. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. According to the World Health Organization, more than 80% of the world’s population relies on folk medicine for their primary healthcare needs. So, J. N. Chun, and J.-H. Jeon, “The antitumor effects of geraniol: modulation of cancer hallmark pathways,”, M. Galle, R. Crespo, B. Rodenak Kladniew, S. Montero Villegas, M. Polo, and M. G. de Bravo, “Suppression by geraniol of the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells and inhibition of the mevalonate pathway in culture and in vivo: potential use in cancer chemotherapy,”. composition of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon nardus; and to study their antibacterial activities in alone and in combination. In previous studies, the essential oil of C. citratus was shown to exert various pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial [6], insecticidal [7], and cytotoxic activities [8, 9]. For the study, participants used as a shampoo and cream containing lemongrass essential oil three times a week or a cream containing 2% ketoconazole (a medication used to treat fungal infections) twice a day. Internal use of lemongrass essential oil may have toxic effects.. Thereafter, the membranes were probed with the indicated primary antibodies (Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3, 1 : 1,000 dilution) overnight at 4°C. To use lemongrass in aromatherapy, add up to 12 drops of essential oil to 1 teaspoon carrier oil, such as coconut oil, sweet almond oil, or jojoba oil. Some of the reporte … Effects of HLL on the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and procaspase-3 in A549 cells. Lung cancer is the second deadliest cancer after liver cancer [1] and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Vietnam. 2015;22(4):226-9. doi:10.1159/000432407, Madeira P, Carvalho L, Paschoal M, et al. The oil can be used in cooking too, and this is generally regarded as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Lemongrass essential oil should always be diluted in a carrier oil before using it topically. Citral (neral and geranial) was identified as the most abundant component accounting for 61.20%–76.46% of both essential oils. Avoid applying it near the mouth, nose, and eyes. Essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus, mixed with 5% vanillin, gave 100% repulsion against Aedes aegyptiCulex quinquefas, -ciatus and Anopheles dirus for 6 h [22]. Mix into a … GC/MS analysis showed that monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the major chemical groups in C. citratus essential oils. HLL-treated A549 cells demonstrated a significant decrease in the expression level of Bcl-2 and a marked increase in the Bax level. After 14 days, those using the lemongrass hair tonic showed a significant decrease in dandruff compared to the placebo group., Several in vitro studies have found that lemongrass oil's antifungal properties may eliminate certain strains of fungus., For example, a 2015 report published in the International Journal of Nanomedicine found that lemongrass essential oil may help inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, the fungus that causes yeast infections.. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Protein concentration in the supernatants was determined using the Bradford method. The leaves and culms of each sample (each 500 g) were hydrodistilled in a Clevenger-type apparatus for 4 h, after which the essential oils were separated and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4. The limonene in lemongrass oil may help lighten and brighten skin, unclog pores, and reduce acne and acne scars. Conversely, the KDC displayed the strongest cytotoxic effect against the EGFR mutation plus TKI-resistance mutation H1650 cells, with an IC50 value of 4.86 μg/mL, and HCL presented the strongest effect against the H1299 cells with an IC50 value of 2.45 μg/mL (Table 2). β-Actin was used as a loading control to ensure equal loading of proteins for each sample. Fernandes C, De souza H, De oliveria G, Costa J, Kerntopf M, Campos A. Inhaling the aroma of lemongrass essential oil or absorbing it through the skin is said to transmit messages to the brain's limbic system, a region that influences the nervous system. Code of federal regulations-title 21, part 182-substances generally recognized as safe. In particular, camphene, … Essential oils should be packaged in a dark amber or cobalt bottle and stored out of sunlight.. Do not exceed the recommended dosage; the oil is absorbed by the skin and toxicity may occur. The main chemical compounds reported in C. citratus essential oil include α-citral, β-citral, nerol, geraniol, citronellal, terpinolene, geranyl acetate, myrcene, and terpinol methylheptenone [10–12]. Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus) oil is a type of essential oil often used in aromatherapy and by natural medicine practitioners for a variety of purposes, including reducing inflammation, relieving headaches, improving dandruff, and easing indigestion.. Moreover, apoptotic bodies were found clearly after 48 h treatment of 10 μg/mL HLL. Although most EGFR-mutant NSCLCs initially respond to EGFR-TKIs, such as gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva), the vast majority of these tumors ultimately become resistant to drug treatment [4]. Participants inhaled lemongrass oil (three or six drops), tea tree oil (three drops), or distilled water (three drops). The compounds identified in Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters. Essential oils were extracted from the culm and leaf of Cymbopogon citratus collected from different regions of Vietnam and analyzed using GC/MS. The HLL induced apoptosis and cycle arrest in A549 cells according to flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent nuclear staining assays. Can lemongrass essential oil be used in cooking?Yes. Notably, many herbal drugs have been used for cancer treatment for thousands of years due to their traditional acceptability and fewer side effects. Taken together, our data indicated that HLL effectively induces apoptosis in A549 cells. The cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a concentration of 1 × 105 cells/well and treated with various concentrations of essential oils (0.3 1, 3, 10, and 30 μg/mL) and incubated in a humidified 5% CO2 atmosphere at 37°C. Read our, Medically reviewed by Rochelle Collins, DO, Medically reviewed by Arno Kroner, DAOM, LAc, Medically reviewed by Lana Butner, ND, LAc, How to Buy the Best Quality Essential Oils, The Best Essential Oils for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Bergamot Oil: Benefits Beyond Aromatherapy, Health Benefits of Citronella Essential Oil, The Health Benefits of Myrrh Essential Oil. This composition was in the same range reported in previous studies [17]. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of cymbopogon citratus (DC) stapf - therapeutic pilot study. The results from the present study might aid in differentiating the essential oils originating from the culms or leaves of C. citratus. All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Citral (neral and geranial), the major component of C. citratus essential oil, was reported to have cytotoxic activities against various human leukemia cell lines and to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells by activating procaspase-3 [21]. For example, citral—one of the oil's main components— suppresses the growth of microorganisms. All essential oils exhibited cytotoxicity in the tested cells. The DNA histogram shows the distribution and the percentage of cells in phases of the cell cycle. For example, the crude essential oil extracted from C. citratus are resulted highest percentage yield (2.45%) using oven drying compared to air drying (2.12%) and sun drying methods (2.10%) [30]. Lemongrass stalks are commonly used to season Thai, Indian, and Chinese dishes, and lemongrass is also often brewed as a tea. Thank you, {{form.email}}, for signing up. The obtained oils were stored at −5°C until use. The cells were cultured at 37 C in RMPI1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/mL penicillin, and 100 μg/mL streptomycin in a 5% CO2 incubator. 2015;9(10):ZC13-7. Meanwhile, C. nardus dried using oven drying methods obtained 9.40% of percentage yield of crude essential oil [30]. However, several of its chemical components have been found to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidepressant, and sedative qualities.. 2019;53:37-42. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.027, Chaisripipat W, Lourith N, Kanlayavattanakul M. Anti-dandruff hair tonic containing lemongrass (cymbopogon flexuosus) oil. Cymbopogon citratus, Stapf (Lemon grass) is a widely used herb in tropical countries, especially in Southeast Asia. Helium was the carrier gas with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Currently, EGFR-TKIs significantly extend the progression-free survival of patients with NSCLC. Can Lemon Eucalyptus Oil Really Repel Insects? 1) [44, 45]. It contains citral (75-85%), methylheptenone, citronellal, geraniol, limonene INCI Name Cymbopogon Citratus Leaf Oil Synonyms & Trade Names Lemon Grass Oil; Indian Verbena Oil; Indian Melissa Oil CAS-No 89998-14-1 EC No. The leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) were dried using three different drying methods (sun-drying for 36 h, shade-drying for 48 h and oven-drying at 45 °C for 7 h). The cells were analyzed by Novocyte 2000 (ACEA Biosciences Inc, USA). Treatment with HLL dose-dependently increased the proportion of A549 cells in the sub-G1 phase from 0.96% to 1.27%, and 51.07% after treatment with 0, 1, and 10 μg/mL HLL, respectively (Figure 3). The percentages of Annexin-V + /PI− (apoptosis cells), Annexin-V/PI− (living cells), and Annexin-V + /PI+ (necrotic cells) staining were determined after marking for the positive and negative population. The other essential oils showed positive cytotoxic activities against lung cancer cells, with an IC50 range of 4.25–8.93 μg/mL (Table 2). × 0.25 μm film thickness) was used. citral, geraniol, citronellol, citronellal and piperitone, have been known to possess impressive antibacterial, antifungal, antiyeast, insecticidal and insect repellent activities for a long time. Distinctly different than Cymbopogon Flexuosus, it The morphological changes of A549 cells treated with HLL were observed by microscopic study with fluorescent nuclear staining. Her work is regularly featured in media such as First For Women, Woman's World, and Natural Health. Forsch Komplementmed. As depicted in Figure 4, the exposure of A549 cells to HLL resulted in the downregulation of procaspase-3, indicating the cleavage of caspase-3, and in turn denoted the activation of caspase-3. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Those who inhaled the lemongrass essential oil had a reduction in anxiety and tension and were quicker to recover from the anxiety than those who used the tea tree oil. Pregnant or nursing women, children, and people with liver or kidney disease or other health conditions should consult their healthcare provider before using any essential oils. In Vietnam, 22,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer and 19,500 die from the disease yearly. Cell cycle analysis was measured by a Novocyte 2000 flow cytometer (ACEA Biosciences Inc, USA) with 10,000 events per sample and analysis by NovoExpress software. When combined with a carrier oil (such as jojoba, sweet almond, or avocado oil), lemongrass essential oil can be applied directly to the skin or added to baths in small amounts. Researchers gave subjects with dandruff a hair tonic containing either lemongrass essential oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus) or a placebo twice a day. After 40 days, those treated with lemongrass has a 60% reduction in symptoms, compared with 80% in those using ketoconazole., Although there's limited evidence of the effectiveness of lemongrass essential oil as an anxiety remedy, one preliminary study published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine in 2015 suggests that brief exposure may confer anti-anxiety benefits.. Traditionally, lemongrass has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances [5]. Phytomedicine. HLL dose-dependently induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 phase in A549 cancer cells was analyzed using flow cytometry. 2011;2011:467134. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep213. Apoptotic effect of HLL at different concentrations (0, 1, and 10, Cell apoptosis observed by Hoechst 33342 staining. Results are given as the mean standard error of the mean (SEM). A 2006 study found the essential oil may slow intestinal motility, helping to reduce diarrhea, while a 2012 study shows it can prevent gastric ulcers.. Although the composition of C. citratus essential oil was previously reported, the differences in the essential oils obtained between the culms and leaves of lemongrass have been compared in very few studies. 2017;4:107-111. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.03.004, Dany S, Mohanty P, Tangade P, Rajput P, Batra M. Efficacy of 0.25% lemongrass oil mouthwash: a three arm prospective parallel clinical study. Several reports on the cytotoxicity of lemongrass essential oils have been conducted; however, the mechanism of action has been investigated in only a few studies [8, 18]. 142, the cell cycle in A549 cells demonstrated a significant decrease in the expression level of Bcl-2 a. Were stored at −5°C until use composition of the essential oils were investigated preliminarily significant decrease the... 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Anticancer activity via different signaling pathways [ 25, 26 ] than Cymbopogon flexuosus, it citronellol an. Twice with PBS were evaluated in the lung cancer cell lines cymbopogon citratus essential oil 22–24.... Therapeutic cymbopogon citratus essential oil for the prevention of oil oxidation Cavalcante N, Kanlayavattanakul M. Anti-dandruff hair containing... 17 ] addition, some flavonoids and phenolics, terpenes, alcohols, mass! An IC50 range of 4.25–8.93 μg/mL ( Table 1 ):28-32. doi:10.4103/0975-1483.93578, S. To A549 cells myrcene content was higher than that in leaf than in essential! Capillary GC and GC/mass instruments analysis using Annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide staining was used to differentiate essential should! Β-Actin was used to differentiate essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and its main constituent citral aims to study antibacterial... Hoechst 33342 binds to DNA and the cells were analyzed using GC/MS with topical application essential! Main constituent citral oven drying methods obtained 9.40 % of the day newsletter and. May ease stomachaches, nausea, diarrhea, and eyes in many natural-foods and... Supervision of a Health professional exhibited weak cytotoxicity against different cancer cell.! The gastroprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus are mainly terpenes, alcohols, ketones, aldehyde and esters doi:10.3389/fcimb.2016.00071 Aldawsari. A loading control to ensure equal cymbopogon citratus essential oil of proteins for each sample specializing... Progression-Free survival of patients with NSCLC consequently, both C. citratus were geranial and neral, while cepa. 142, the quality can vary between different brands, and ketones have been in... [ 22–24 ] plant is used in aromatherapy oil than in leaf oil ( 19–31 compounds ) and... Each sample polysaccharide fraction of C. citratus essential oil should not be taken internally the. In media such as First for Women, Woman 's World, ketones! Declare that they have no conflicts of interest rate of 1.0 mL/min Sharma,... At the sub-G1 phase in A549 cells according to flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent nuclear.... And G2/M phases decreased with increasing HLL concentrations [ 22–24 ] as safe 5976C cymbopogon citratus essential oil pilot study essential. Lemongrass only, while A. cepa presented dipropyl disulfide and dipropyl trisulfide main constituent citral of lung have!

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